1. It is an act of referring to previous court decisions, statutes and legal books on the basis of which the present trial can be based and arguments be made 2. It also refers to the notice given by the court to the party of the lawsuit to appear in the court during the trial. It can be either for a petty offence, or civil cases or criminal cases. On getting such notice, it is essential for the party to appear in the court, failing which the court can release an arrest warrant. 3. Quoting words already quoted earlier by someone or somewhere.