Civil Case Definition and Legal Meaning

On this page, you'll find the legal definition and meaning of Civil Case, written in plain English, along with examples of how it is used.

What is Civil Case?

Civil case is such that its not criminal in nature. Its generally on property, business, personal domestic problems, divorces and such types where ones constitutional and personal rights are breached.

History and Meaning of Civil Case

A civil case is a legal dispute between two or more parties where the plaintiff seeks compensation or specific performance, and the defendant tries to prove their innocence or justify their actions. Civil cases can involve disputes over property, contracts, torts, employment, and family law, among others. The objective of a civil case is to settle a controversy, usually through a court judgment, which can provide monetary damages, an injunction, or a declaration of rights.

Civil cases are different from criminal cases because they don't involve the prosecution of a public offense punishable by imprisonment or death. Civil cases can also have a lower burden of proof, which means that the plaintiff only needs to establish their claim by a preponderance of the evidence, rather than beyond a reasonable doubt.

Examples of Civil Case

  1. A person sues their neighbor for damages to their car caused by a fallen tree in the neighbor's yard.
  2. An employee files a lawsuit against their employer for harassment and discrimination on the basis of gender.
  3. A contractor sues a homeowner for unpaid renovations and breach of contract.
  4. A woman files for divorce from her husband and seeks custody of their children and division of marital property.
  5. A patient sues their doctor for medical malpractice and negligence that resulted in injury or harm.

Legal Terms Similar to Civil Case

  1. Criminal Case: A legal proceeding in which the state or federal government prosecutes a person or entity for a crime committed.
  2. Tort: A civil wrong that causes harm, injury, or loss to a person or property and can result in liability for the tortfeasor.
  3. Complaint: A formal document filed by the plaintiff in a civil case that sets forth the allegations and demands relief from the court.
  4. Defendant: The party against whom a civil or criminal action is taken, who is required to respond to the plaintiff's claims.
  5. Judgment: A final decision of a court that resolves the issues in a civil case and determines the rights and obligations of the parties involved.