Peer Review Definition and Legal Meaning

On this page, you'll find the legal definition and meaning of Peer Review, written in plain English, along with examples of how it is used.

What is Peer Review?

n.It is scrutinising or evaluating the performance of a professional or a technician by a board or committee made up of people in the similar occupation.This is done to evaluate minimum standards of his performance which, if found failed to be satisfactory he is liable in a lawsuit claiming damages due to negligence or if he is denied promotion and penalised by his employer for being legitimately discharged.

History and Meaning of Peer Review

Peer review is a critical evaluation or assessment of work completed by professionals or academics, typically in the same field, before it is published or accepted. The peer review process involves a board or committee of experts who review the work to ensure that it meets certain standards of quality, accuracy, and originality. The origins of the peer review process can be traced back to the 17th century, during which time the Royal Society of London began using peer review as a means of evaluating scientific research.

Examples of Peer Review

  1. A scientific journal receiving a research manuscript will scrutinize the manuscript through a peer review process to ensure its quality and accuracy before accepting it for publication.
  2. A university professor submitting a research proposal for grant funding will have the proposal reviewed by a panel of academics in the same field through a peer review process to determine whether it meets the necessary standards.
  3. A medical board conducting peer review of a surgeon's work to determine whether their practices meet the minimum standard of care.

Legal Terms Similar to Peer Review

  1. Malpractice – when a professional or expert fails to deliver the expected level of skill or care in their work, resulting in harm to the person or entity they were working for.
  2. Negligence – when an individual fails to exercise the level of care or caution expected of them, resulting in harm or injury to another person or entity.
  3. Standard of care – the level of skill, care, and diligence that is expected of a professional or expert in their field.